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It appears that not all indigenous units were disbanded at the end of the civil war period (31 BC).Some of the more experienced units were kept in existence to complement the legions, and became the core of the standing auxiliary forces that developed in the Julio-Claudian period.Roman auxiliary infantry crossing a river, Danube, the emperor Trajan's Dacian Wars (AD 101–106).They can be distinguished by the oval shield (clipeus) they were equipped with, in contrast to the rectangular scutum carried by legionaries.Despite its formidable strength, the legion had a number of deficiencies, especially a lack of cavalry.

By the outbreak of the Second Punic War, the Romans were remedying the legions' other deficiencies by using non-Italian specialised troops.Until 200 BC, the bulk of a Roman army's cavalry was provided by Rome's regular Italian allies (socii), commonly known as the "Latin" allies, which made up the Roman military confederation.This was Rome's defence system until the Social War of 91–88 BC.Panel from Trajan's Column, Rome The Auxilia (Latin, lit."auxiliaries") constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army during the Principate era (30 BC–284 AD), alongside the citizen legions.

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